Bone Fixator
Colorized scanning electron micrograph shows bone cells attaching to a new type of bone cement made of calcium phosphate. Credit: H.Xu/American Dental Association Foundation.

Factors Influencing Successful Fracture Healing (3/3)

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1. Kenwright J and Goodship AE. Controlled mechanical stimulation in the treatment of tibial fractures. Clinical Orthopaedics & Related Research, 1989(241): p. 36-47.

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6. Ilizarov GA. The tension-stress effect on the genesis and growth of tissues. Part I. The influence of stability of fixation and soft-tissue preservation. Clinical Orthopaedics & Related Research, 1989(238): p. 249-81.

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9. O'Doherty DM, Butler SP, and Goodship AE. Stress protection due to external fixation. Journal of Biomechanics, 1995. 28(5): p. 575-586.

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11. Ilizarov GA. Clinical application of the tension-stress effect for limb lengthening. Clinical Orthopaedics & Related Research, 1990(250): p. 8-26.

12. Richards M, Goulet JA, Weiss JA, Waanders NA, Schaffler MB, and Goldstein SA. Bone regeneration and fracture healing. Experience with distraction osteogenesis model. Clinical Orthopaedics & Related Research, 1998(355 Suppl): p. S191-204.

13. Kenwright J and Gardner T. Mechanical influences on tibial fracture healing. Clinical Orthopaedics & Related Research, 1998(355 Suppl): p. S179-90.

14. Noordeen MHH, Lavy CBD, Shergill NS, Tuite JD, and Jackson AM. Cyclical Micromovement and Fracture Healing. Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery - British Volume., 1995. 77(4): p. 645-648.

15. McKellop H, Hoffmann R, Sarmiento A, and Ebramzadeh E. Control of motion of tibial fractures with use of a functional brace or an external fixator. A study of cadavera with use of a magnetic motion sensor. Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery - American Volume, 1993. 75(7): p. 1019-25.

16. Perren SM and Cordey J. The concept of interfragmentary strain. In: Uhthoff, H.K. (Ed.), Current Concepts of Internal Fixation of Fractures, 1980: p. Springer, Berlin, pp. 63-77.

17. Gardner TN, Evans M, and Simpson H. Temporal variation of applied inter fragmentary displacement at a bone fracture in harmony with maturation of the fracture callus. Medical Engineering & Physics, 1998. 20(6): p. 480-484.

18. Perren SM. Physical and biological aspects of fracture healing with special reference to internal fixation. Clinical Orthopaedics & Related Research, 1979(138): p. 175-96.

19. Evans FG. Stress and strain in bones. 1957, Springfield: Thomas.

20. Yamada H. Strength of biological materials. 1970, Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.

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